Titlu referat: World War
Nivel referat: liceu
World War 1
World War was a military conflict wich lasted from 1914 to
1918, that began as a local European war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia on
July 28, 1914; was transformed into a general European struggle by declaration
of war against Russia on August 1, 1914; and eventually became a global war
involving 32 nations. Twenty-eight of these nations, known as the Allies and
the Associated Powers, and including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and
the United States, opposed the coalition known as the Central Powers,
consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. The immediate
cause of the war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia was the assassination on
June 28, 1914, at Sarajevo in Bosnia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire;
now in Bosnia and Herzegovina), of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir-presumptive
to the Austrian and Hungarian thrones, by Gavrilo Princip, a Serb nationalist.
The fundamental causes of the conflict, however, were rooted deeply in the
European history of the previous century, particularly in the political and
economic policies that prevailed on the Continent after 1871, the year that
marked the emergence of Germany as a great world power.
Causes of the War .The underlying causes of World War I
were the spirit of intense nationalism that permeated Europe throughout the
19th and into the 20th century, the political and economic rivalry among the
nations, and the establishment and maintenance in Europe after 1871 of large
armaments and of two hostile military alliances. World War I provided a great
stimulus to the production and military use of aircraft, including the airplane
and airship, or dirigible balloon, and the tethered balloon. Aircraft were used
for two principal purposes: observation and bombing. For observation of
stationary battlefronts extensive use was made by both belligerents of small
tethered balloons; for scouting at sea, dirigible balloons were extensively
used, and airplanes were used for scouting coastal waters. In connection with
military operations on land, airplanes were used to observe the disposition of
the troops and defenses of the enemy and for bombing the enemy's lines or
troops in action. A special feature of the war was the raids conducted by means
of dirigibles or airplanes on important enemy centers far removed from the
battlefront.The first German airplane raid on Paris took place on August 30,
1914; and the first German air raid on England was on Dover on December 21,
1914. During 1915 and 1916 the German type of dirigible known as the zeppelin
raided eastern England and London 60 times.
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