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Titlu referat: Windsor Castle

Nivel referat: liceu

Descriere referat:
Windsor Castle is one
of the official residences of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The Queen is Head
of State of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and also
Head of the Commonwealth.
       The monarch’s
direct powers these days are limited: as a constitutional sovereign The Queen
normally acts on the advice of her ministers; nevertheless the government, the
judges and the armed services all act in the Queen’s name and she is an important symbol
of national unity. She is kept closely informed about all aspects of national
life and the Prime Minister has a weekly audience with her.
The Queen has certain residual ‘prerogative’ powers which include the appointment
of the Prime Minister and granting the dissolution of Parliament.
       As well as being Head of the Commonwealth, the Queen is Head of
State of sixteen of its fifty-four member countries.
       Many of the Queen’s duties are ceremonial and a reminder of the United
Kingdome’s long history.
They include the State Opening of Parliament, The Queen’s Birthday Parade, state visits and the
Garter Day celebrations.
       The Queen is officially in residence at Windsor twice a year: in
April and also in June, when the annual Garter Service is held in St
George’s Chapel with the
installation of new Knights. The Castle is used alternately with Buckingham
Palace for ceremonials visits from Heads of State of other countries. The Queen
and her family also spend most of their private weekends at the
Castle.
       Windsor Castle is one of the major repositories of the Royal
Collection, where incomparable works of art are displayed in the historic
setting for which they were collected or commissioned by successive monarchs.
Because of the Status of the building as a working royal palace, objects are
sometimes moved. Pictures and work of art are also frequently lent to
exhibitions all over the world, so the arrangement may vary from time to
time.
CONTENTS
Plan of the
Castle……………………………………………………...4
       The
Development of the
Castle……………………………………………4
History of the
Castle…………………………………………………..6
       Origins
…………………………………………………………………………..6
       Medieval reconstruction
…………………………………………………………6
       Charle’s
Baroque
Palace…………………………………………………………7
       Picturesque Revival
……………………………………………………………...8
       Queen Victoria and the
       Twentieth Century
……………………………………………………………….9
       The Fire of 1992
………………………………………………………………….9
       Restoration
……………………………………………………………………….9
The Upper Ward and North
Terrace……………………………….10
               Tour of the
Castle……………………………………………………………….10
       Queen Mary’s
Doll’s
House…………………………………………………….10
       The
Gallery………………………………………………………………………11
       The China
Museum……………………………………………………………..11
       
The State
Apartments……………………………………………….12
       The Grand
Staircase……………………………………………………………12
       The Grand
Vestibule……………………………………………………………12
       The Anthe Throne
Room……………………………………………………….12
       The King’s Drawing
Room…………………………………………………….13
       The King’s Bed
Chamber………………………………………………………13
       The King’s
Dressing
Room…………………………………………………….14
       The King’s
Closet……………………………………………………………….14
       The Queen’s
Drawing
Room……………………………………………………15
       The Octagon
Lobby……………………………………………………………..15
       The King’s
Dining
Room……………………………………………………….15
       The Queen’s
Ballroom………………………………………………………….16
       The Queen’s
Audience
Chamber………………………………………………16
       The Queen’s
Presence
Chamber……………………………………………….17
       The Queen’s
Guard
Chamber………………………………………………….17
       St George’s
Hall…………………………………………………………………18
       The Private
Chapel……………………………………………………………..19
       The Lantern
Lobby……………………………………………………………..19
               
The State Apartments
(Continued)…………………………………23
       The Grand Reception
Room……………………………………………………23
       The Garter Throne
Room……………………………………………………....23
       The Waterloo
Chamber………………………………………………………...24
The Upper
Ward……………………………………………………..25
       Engine Court And The
Quadrangle…………………………………………...25
The Lower
Ward……………………………………………………..25
       
       St Gerorge’s
Chapel…………………………………………………………….25
       The Albert Memorial
Chapel…………………………………………………..26
       The Lower
Ward………………………………………………………………..26
Plan of the Castle
The Development of the Castle
The existing vast
structure has evolved over the many centuries from its origin as a Norman
fortress. Windsor Castle is the oldest royal residence to have remained in
continuous use by the monarchs of Britain and is in many ways an architectural
epitome of the history of the nation. The Castle covers an area of about 5
hectares (13 acres) and contains, as well as a royal palace, a magnificent
collegiate church and the homes or workplaces of a large number of people,
including the  Constable and Governor of the Castle, the Military Knights
of Windsor and the Dean and Canons of St George’s Chapel .
       The earliest part of the structure is the artificial earthen mound
in the middle which was raised c.1080 by William the Conqueror. It supports the
Round Tower built by Henry II, who adapted a purely defensive fortification as
a residence by building the first royal apartments on the north side of the
Upper Ward. The Upper Ward was converted into a huge Gothic palace by a
succession of medieval kings, notably Edward III in the fourteenth century. He
also founded the Order of the Garter and the associated College of St George in
the Lower Ward. Edward IV built the present St George’s Chapel in the fifteenth century.
Charles II reconstructed the State Apartments in Baroque taste in the 1670s,
and the whole of the Upper Ward was reconstructed to its present picturesque
Gothic appearance and the Round Tower heightened by George IV in the 1820s. He
was also responsible for a acquiring much of the magnificent art collection
which now fills the rooms of the Castle. Following a serious fire in 1992, a
new roof was designed for St George’s Hall, and the adjoining Lantern Lobby and the Private Chapel were
rebuilt in modern Gothic style.
HISTORY OF THE CASTLE
Origins
       The Castle was founded by William the Conqueror c.1080 as one of
the chain of fortifications round London. It occupies the only natural
defensive side in this part of the Thames Valley, 30 meters (100 feet) above
the river.
       Norman castles were built to a standard plan with an artificial
mount (motte) supporting a keep, the entrance to which was protected by a
fenced yard or bailey. Windsor is the most notable example of a distinctive
version of the plan developed for use on a ridge, with baileys on both sides on
central motte.
       When first built, the Castle was entirely defensive, but easy
access from London and proximity to the old royal hunting forest (now Windsor
Great Park) soon recommended it as a royal residence. Henry I had domestic
quarters within the Castle as early as 1110 and Henry II built two separate
sets of apartments, a stat residence in the Lower Ward, with a hall where he
could entertain his court on grate occasions and a smaller residence on the
north side if the Upper Ward for his family’s exclusive occupation.
       Henry II also began to replace the timber outer walls of the Upper
Ward in stone. The basic curtain wall, modified by later alterations, dates
from Henry II time, as does the Round Tower on the top of the motte. The
curtain wall around the Lower Ward was completed over the next sixty years. The
well-preserved section visible from the High Street with three half-round
towers was built by Henry III in the 1220s. He carried out extensive works at
Windsor, rebuilding Henry II’s apartments in the Lower Ward and adding a new Chapel; parts
survive embedded in later structures in the Lower Ward. He also further
improved the royal apartments in the Upper Ward.
Medieval Reconstruction
       The outstanding medieval expansion of Windsor took place in the
reign of Edward III (1357-77). The Castle was converted into a Gothic palace
and the seat of the new Order of the Grater. The massive architecture of
Windsor reflects Edward III’ s  medieval ideal of Christian, chivalric monarchy as clearly
as Louis XIV’ s Versailles
represents seventeenth-century centralization and Divine Right.
       The Lower Ward was transformed for the College of St
George.
Founded on 6 August 1348, the College
compromised the Dean, twelve Canons, and thirteen Vicars-Choral to conduct
regular services. In addition there were to be twenty-six Poor Knights to
represent the Knights of the Garter at daily services.
       The reconstruction of the Upper Ward began in 1357 under the
direction of William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester. An inner gatehouse with
cylindrical towers (now misleadingly called “Norman Gate”) was built.
Stone-vaulted undercrofts (which survived) supported extensive royal apartments
on the first floor with separate rooms for the King and Queen (in the tradition
of English royal palaces), arranged round inner courtyards. Along the south
side, facing the quadrangle, were the Great Hall and Royal...



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