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Titlu referat: Titanic

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Descriere referat:
TITANIC
THE ARTIFACT
EXHIBITION
VOCABULARY
DID YOU KNOW?
Aft—Toward the back of the Ship
Bow—The front of the Ship
Bridge—The forward
command center of the Ship.
Bulkhead—A large
vertical partition separating sections of the ship.
Collapsible—A lifeboat
with canvass sides.
Crow's Nest —A lookout platform on the Ship's
mast.
Davits—Cranes that
lowered Titanic's lifeboats.
Debris Field—The area on
the seabed surrounding the wreck.
Forward—Toward the
front of the Ship.
Hold—A storage
area for cargo and baggage.
Hull—The outer
skin of the Ship.
Maiden voyage—A vessel's
first voyage.
Port—The left side of the Ship looking
toward the bow.
Rivets—Steel bolts that held the hull plates
together.
Starboard—The right
side of the vessel looking toward the bow.
Stern—The rear of the vessel.
Submersible—The small
vessel that can dive to the ocean floor.
It cost $7.5 million to build the
Titanic in 1912 and carried
a $5 million insurance policy.  It would cost approximately $400 million to build the Ship today.
While serving on the Titanic, Chief Officer Henry T.
Wilde wrote to his sister: "I still don't like this Ship. I have a
queer feeling about it."
A first-class ticket for a parlor suite cost
$4,350, which would be roughly $50,000 today.
Adhering to the rule of the sea: women and
children first, a man listed as passenger Hoffman
handed his two young sons over to strangers to insure their survival.  He
perished. The man was actually Michel Navratil who
had kidnapped his sons during divorce proceedings.
The children were eventually reunited with their
mother in New York when she read of their plight in a
newspaper that had dubbed them "The Titanic
Orphans."
Only one
first-class child perished: Loraine Allison, age 2, from Canada.
The Ship was as long as four city blocks and as wide as a four-lane
highway.
QUICK FACTS
MAIDEN VOYAGE BEGINS        APRIL 10,
1912
SINKING OCCURS        APRIL
14-15, 1912
PASSENGERS/CREW SAVED—705
PASSENGERS/CREW LOST        1,523
RESCUE SHIP        CARPATHIA
CHILDREN ON BOARD        114
CHILDREN LOST        54
DOGS ON BOARD        12
In the photograph above, taken by Father
Frank Browne, six-year-old Robert Douglas Spedden of
New York is spinning his top on A-deck while his
father, Frederic, looks on. Robert survived the sinking in lifeboat 3 with his
toy bear.  Later his mother would write a book about the family
experiences called "Polar the Titanic
Bear."
THE PASSENGERS
The Titanic
is more than an epic of steam and steel.  It is
the story of her passengers, from first-class
millionaires to third-class immigrants, who displayed incredible acts of
courage, self-sacrifice, and heroism, and who endured extraordinary
loss.
The most famous couple making the crossing was Mr. and Mrs. John Jacob Astor IV. They
were returning toNew York after a honeymoon
abroad.  Madeline survived but John Jacob perished as did their Airedale,
Kitty,boarded in the ship's kennels. As the
wealthiest man on board, Astor's death made headlines around the
world.
Major Archibald Butt, military aide to
President William Taft, in true soldierly fashion, helped others to
thelifeboats but failed to save himself. A
memorial fountain dedicated to his bravery stands near the White
Housein Washington, D.C.
Benjamin Guggenheim and his valet
changed into formal attire as the end approached. The millionaire
wasreported to have said, "We've dressed in our
best and are prepared to go down like gentlemen."
Second-class passenger, Annie Clemmer
Funk perished after selflessly relinquishing the
last place in a lifeboatto a mother whose
children had already been seated in the boat. Annie was returning home from
missionarywork in India to be at the bedside of
her own ailing mother.
Rosa Abbott was a single mother
traveling in third-class with her two sons, Rossmore and Eugene. The
Abbottboys were not allowed into the lifeboats
because, at ages sixteen and fourteen, they were considered
men.Rosa refused to leave without them and all
three were swept away from the deck by a wall of water as the
shiptook its final plunge.   Rosa was
the only woman pulled into a lifeboat from the sea.  Her boys were never
found.
THE TITANIC
WRECK SITE
The wreck site of the Titanic is 963 miles northeast of  New York
and  453  miles southeast of the Newfoundland coastline. Titanic   lies  
2.5    miles  
beneath   the ocean's surface where the pressure is 6,000 pounds per
square inch. The recovery teams reach the site via MIR, a $25  million submersible equipped with mechanical   
arms.        Each   
submersible weighs 18
tons and is made of titanium and high grade rolled steel. The   submersibles   carry  three   people with one-foot thick plastic portholes.  They can deploy a  Remote-Controlled  Vehicle (ROV) on a
110-foot tether which is flown inside the wreck to
record images. It takes over 2 hours to reach the wreck site.   Each dive lasts 12-15 hours with an
additional 2 hours to return to the
surface.
CONSERVING ARTIFACTS
Conservation begins as soon as an artifact
is exposed to the air. Scientists follow a careful
process to remove rust and salt deposits
from each artifact.
The artifact is cleaned with a soft
brush and placed in afoam-lined tube of water to be shipped to the
laboratory.
At the lab, the artifact is washed in
de-ionized water toleach out contaminating surface salts.
Electric currents are used to remove
salts from paper,leather and wood. These
materials are treated withchemical agents to
remove rust and to fumigate the artifactsin case
mold has begun to form.
As artifacts made of wood and leather begin to dry,
theyreceive injections of water-soluble wax to fill in the
spacesleft by the water.
Paper artifacts are freeze-dried
to remove all water andtreated to protect against mold then resized and restored
totheir shape.
All recovered artifacts are carefully maintained in
atemperature-controlled climate, protected from humidityand kept
away from sunlight.
WHAT DID CHILDREN DO FOR FUN ON THE
TITANIC?
Children in First Class could:
Go to the gymnasium.  The gymnasium was
reserved for children between the hours of 1:00 and 3:00 P.M.every day. The gym instructor, T. W. McCawley, enjoyed showing
children how to use the equipment.
Ride a
mechanical horse or camel in the gymnasium
Use
the stationary bike or
rowing machine.
Watch the
passengers' dogs being
walked by a steward every morning and afternoon on the poop deck.
Play shuffleboard or deck quoits,
a game similar to horseshoes played on the deck of a
ship with roperings thrown at a wooden score
board for points.
Attend a
concert in the
first-class lounge in the evenings.
Six-year old Douglas Spedden of Tuxedo
Park, New York, played with his spinning top on the boat deck.
Children in Second Class could:
Skip and
play games like "horse racing" on deck.
Read
books in the
library.
Ruth Becker pushed her brother, Richard,
around the decks in a White Star Line stroller.
Children in Third Class could:
Play
games on the poop
deck.
Run up and
down the stairs exploring the parts of the ship open to them.
Look down
into the boiler room and
wave at the stokers shoveling coal.
Frank Goldsmith remembered swinging on huge
baggage cranes in the well deck and getting his hands covered with oily grease.



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