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Titlu referat: Psychology and human behavior

Nivel referat: liceu

Descriere referat:
               
                                           
PSYCHOLOGY
                        
                           
AND
             
HUMAN BEHAVIOR
                       
    
                                
Contents :
    
         Preface to
forward………………………………...3
    
A.Introduction…………………………………….....4
        
a.Definition………………………………………...4
         b.Psychology and
Other Sciences………………...5
         c.Major Areas of
Research…………………….....6
     B.Child
Psychology……………………………….....6
       
a.Introduction………………………………….......6
       
b.Scientific Study…………………………………..7
       
c.Environmental Studies………………………….8        
       
d.Developmental Theories………………………...9
   C.Developmental
Psychology……………………....15
   D.Social
Psychology…………………………….......16
     
a.Introduction……………………………………..16
      b.Processes of
Social Influence…………………...17
      c.Social
Perception……………………………..…22
     
d.Interpersonal Behaviour……………………….25
      e.Applications
of Social Psychology……………..27
  
Bibliography…………………………………….......29
Preface to Forward
After having studied psychology as a school
subject i became more and more interesed in this scientific field and tried to
improve my knowledge about it.
My first reason for choosing such a topic is
the fact that i am really fascinated by psychological phenomena that can
describe and explain human behaviour from many perspectives.My dream is to
manage to undestand such things and later on in life,after taking some
specialised courses to be able to assist those in need for psychological
aid.
The second reason for picking out to write
about psychology and human behavior is the fact that direct research thrills
me,maybe in an endeavour to help my fellow humans behave nicely in our modern
society.By reading a lot of periodicals and studying online articles in this
domain i think my paper could give its readers a small glimpse of this
interesting scince field and lead them towards a fuller comprehension and
appreciation of the hard work scientists have done in the domain so
far.
It is some reading material for those who love
humanity,for those who want to prevent their children from becoming mentally
ill and guide them to lead a healthy life.
                   
A.
INTRODUCTION
a.
Definition
      
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind. This definition
contains three elements. The first is that psychology is a scientific
enterprise that obtains knowledge through systematic and objective methods of
observation and experimentation. Secondly is that psychologists study behavior,
which refers to any action or reaction that can be measured or
observed—such as the blink
of an eye, an increase in heart rate, or the unruly violence that often erupts
in a mob. Thirdly is that psychologists study the mind, which refers to both
conscious and unconscious mental states. These states cannot actually be seen,
only inferred from observable behavior.      
       Many
people think of psychologists as individuals who dispense advice, analyze
personality, and help those who are troubled or mentally ill. But psychology is
far more than the treatment of personal problems. Psychologists strive to
understand the mysteries of human nature—why people think, feel, and act as
they do. Some psychologists also study animal behavior, using their findings to
determine laws of behavior that apply to all organisms and to formulate
theories about how humans behave and think.
      With its broad
scope, psychology investigates an enormous range of phenomena: learning and
memory, sensation and perception, motivation and emotion, thinking and
language, personality and social behavior, intelligence, infancy and child
development, mental illness, and much more. Furthermore, psychologists examine
these topics from a variety of complementary perspectives. Some conduct
detailed biological studies of the brain, others explore how we process
information; others analyze the role of evolution, and still others study the
influence of culture and society.
      Psychologists
seek to answer a wide range of important questions about human nature: Are
individuals genetically predisposed at birth to develop certain traits or
abilities? How accurate are people at remembering faces, places, or
conversations from the past? What motivates us to seek out friends and sexual
partners? Why do so many people become depressed and behave in ways that seem
self-destructive?  Do intelligence test scores predict success in school,
or later in a career? What causes prejudice, and why is it so widespread? Can
the mind be used to heal the body? Discoveries from psychology can help people
understand themselves, relate better to others, and solve the problems that
confront them.
      The term
psychology comes from two Greek words: psyche, which means “soul,” and
logos, "the study of." These root words were first combined in the 16th
century, at a time when the human soul, spirit, or mind was seen as distinct
from the body.
       b. Psychology and Other Sciences
      Psychology overlaps with other
sciences that investigate behavior and mental processes. Certain parts of the
field share much with the biological sciences, especially physiology, the
biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. Like
physiologists, many psychologists study the inner workings of the body from a
biological perspective. However, psychologists usually focus on the activity of
the brain and nervous system.
      The social
sciences of sociology and anthropology, which study human societies and
cultures, also intersect with psychology. For example, both psychology and
sociology explore how people behave when they are in groups. However,
psychologists try to understand behavior from the vantage point of the
individual, whereas sociologists focus on how behavior is shaped by social
forces and social institutions. Anthropologists investigate behavior as well,
paying particular attention to the similarities and differences between human
cultures around the world.
        c. Major Areas of Research
 
       The
study of psychology draws on two kinds of research: basic and applied. Basic
researchers seek to test general theories and build a foundation of knowledge,
while applied psychologists study people in real-world settings and use the
results to solve practical human problems. There are five major areas of
research: biopsychology, clinical psychology, cognitive psychology,
developmental psychology, and social psychology. Both basic and applied
research is conducted in each of these fields of psychology.This section
describes basic research and other activities of psychologists in the five
major fields of psychology.
                       
B. CHILD
PSYCHOLOGY
   a. Introduction  
    Child Psychology means the study of
children’s
behaviour-including physical,motor,linguistic, perceptual,social and emotional
characteristics-from birth through adolescence. Both Plato and Aristotle wrote
about children. Plato believed that children are born with special talents and
that their training should stress those talents. His views are consistent with
modern thinking about individual differences and education. Aristotle proposed
methods for observing children’s behavior that were forerunners of modern methods. For many
centuries thereafter, little interest was shown in the development of children
because they were regarded only as miniature adults. In the 18th century the
French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau seemed to echo Plato when he stated
that children should be free to express their energies in order to develop
their special talents. His view suggests that normal development occurs best in
a nonrestrictive, supportive environment. Similar concepts are popular
today.
b. Scientific
Study
In the 19th century, Charles
Darwin’s theory of
evolution provided an impetus for the scientific examination of child
development. His emphasis on the survival behavior of different species
stimulated an interest in observing children to identify their adaptive
behaviors and to learn about the inheritance of human behavior. These studies
were of limited scientific value because they lacked objectivity and often
failed to describe adequately the behaviors being observed, making validation
impossible.
Scientific research in child development
flourished from the early 1900s. One major stimulus was the introduction (1916)
by the American psychologist Lewis Terman of the test known today as the
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. This test led to a number of studies about
children’s intellectual
development. In the 1920s scientists at more than a dozen leading universities
began large-scale observational studies of children and their families; these
included the Berkeley Growth Studies at the University of California (started
in 1929 and still active today), the Fels Growth Study at Antioch College, and
the Harvard Growth Studies. All used the longitudinal method, in which the same
children are observed and tested over a specific time period.
The American psychologist Arnold Gesell
established a research institute at Yale University in the 1920s for the...



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