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Titlu referat: Profile of the setting

Nivel referat: liceu

Descriere referat:
Profile of the setting
    The land chosen by Hardy
for his novel to develop is Wessex, a large agriculture region which
designates the south-western
counties of England, principally Dorset and which is also the
author’s native place. The
Vale of Blackmoor “is a vale whose acquaintance is best made by viewing it
from the summits of the hills that surround it...”(ch. V)
   It is common-knowledge that
nature and the landscapes are playing a very important role in
Hardy’s novel, as they
project the feelings of the characters on a background of eternity and
   In order to understand why Thomas
Hardy had chosen Stonehenge to all the places in the world, one must know a
little about the history of this magnificent monument.
The ancient monument lies on the Plains of
Salisbury, or “The Great Plains” (as Hardy identified them on his map) and dates from the Neolithic
(late Stone Age) and Bronze Age.  It is the most celebrated of the
megalithic monuments in England and the most important prehistoric structure in
Europe. Stonehenge consists of four concentric ranges of stones. Within this
outermost range is a circle of smaller bluestones enclosing a horseshoe-shaped
arrangement of bluestones capped with lintels. Within these trilithons (an
assemblage of two uprights capped by a lintel) stands a slab of micaceous
sandstone known as the Altar Stone.
The entire assemblage is surrounded by a
circular ditch 104 m (340 ft) in diameter. On its inner side the ditch rises
into a bank within which is a ring of 56 pits known as Aubrey holes (after
their discoverer, the antiquarian John Aubrey) and used at a later stage as
cremation burial pits. On the north-eastern side, the bank and ditch are
intersected by the Avenue, a processional causeway 23 m wide and nearly 3 km
long, bordered by a ditch. Near the entrance to the Avenue is the Slaughter
Stone, stone that may originally have stood upright. Almost opposite, and set
within the Avenue, is the Heel Stone, which may have played a part in sightings
of the sunrise at the summer solstice.
We can now understand why Hardy had chosen
Stonehenge as the setting for the most powerful scene of “Tess of the
It seems that Stonehenge was the only right
setting for such a dramatic scene.
Stonehenge, England 
The primordial elements of nature are to
support and to echo Tess’s
The Stonehenge fragment begins with
Hardy’s detailed
description of the monoliths. We can almost see Tess passing her fingers along
the vertical surface of the stones.
Angel himself names this edifice a “very
Temple of Winds” because the wind blowing among its blocks of stone made a
sort of a buzz. (“What monstrous place is this?” said Angel. “It hums”,
she said. Harken”). He listens. The wind, playing upon the edifice produced a
blooming tune, like the note of some gigantic one-stringed harp...(chapter
Tess’s and Angel’s
symbolical phrases are meant to express its darkness, coldness, wildness and
greatness. “You mean that pagan temple? Yes. It’s older than the ages, even than the
d’Urbervilles.” Than follows the description of the
Great Plain and that of the Stone of Sacrifice and the Sun stone.
The Altar Stone, lying within the
horseshoe-shaped arrangement on which Tess is resting peacefully, gives her a
feeling of comfort. She said that she felt like home and that she liked it very
much there. When  Tess falls asleep everything is dark, the night wind
dies out.
The author than gradually prepares the reader
for her awakening: the light is growing, the light is strong, the sunbeams
“shine full” on the heroine’s face, the stones are “glistening green gray”. Hardy is using
alliteration to amplify the feeling of anxiety. Notice the parallelism between
the character’s feelings
and the nature itself. From dusk to dawn, the whole nature (light, wind, water,
stone) accompanies Tess.
The Stonehenge scene illustrates once again
the idea that in Hardy’s
novels, the nature projects the tragedy of mankind on the primordial axes, it
doesn’t help them through
the moment.
Thomas Hardy’s map.
-    the internet.)
Thomas Hardy, Tess of the d’Urbervilles”.

Curs valutar
Dolarul american4,2615
Lira Sterlina5,3015
Gramul de aur170,1555
Leul moldovenesc0,2176
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