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Titlu referat: Preamble

Nivel referat: liceu

Descriere referat:
The Universal Declaration of Human
Rights—adopted by the
United Nations (UN) in 1948—gave human rights a new international legal status. Building on
precedents set by the British Magna Carta (1215), the French Declaration of the
Rights of Man (1789), and the United States Bill of Rights (1791), the
Universal Declaration also reflected the events of the 1930s and 1940s,
particularly the Nazi Holocaust. Reports of Nazi atrocities shocked people
around the world and gave momentum to an effort to codify human rights in
international law.
Universal Declaration of Human
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity
and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is
the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human
rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of
mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of
speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the
highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be
compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and
oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of
Whereas it is essential to promote the
development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations
have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the
dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women
and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in
larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves
to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal
respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental
Whereas a common understanding of these
rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of
this pledge,
as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end
that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration
constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect
for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and
international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and
observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the
peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
Article 1.
All human beings are born free and equal in
dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act
towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and
freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such
as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national
or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction
shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international
status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be
independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of
Article 3.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and
security of person.
Article 4.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude;
slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to
cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 6.
Everyone has the right to recognition
everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7.
All are equal before the law and are entitled
without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to
equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration
and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 8.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy
by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights
granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 9.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary
arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a
fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the
determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against
Article 11.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has
the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a
public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal
offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal
offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was
committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was
applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
Article 12.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary
interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks
upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the
law against such interference or attacks.
Article 13.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of
movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any
country, including his own, and to return to his country.
Article 14.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to
enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case
of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts
contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 15.
(1) Everyone has the right to a
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of
his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
Article 16.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any
limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to
found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during
marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with
the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental
group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the
Article 17.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property
alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of
his property.
Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought,
conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or
belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or
private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and
Article 19.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion
and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without
interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any
media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of
peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an
Article 21.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in
the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access
to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the
basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic
and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall
be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Article 22.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the
right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national
effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization
and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights
indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his
Article 23.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free
choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to
protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination,
has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just
and favorable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence
worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of
social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to
join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Article 24.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure,
including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with
Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of
living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family,
including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social
services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness,
disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances
beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to
special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out...

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