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Titlu referat: About smoking

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 About smoking
At British American Tobacco, we have long accepted that
smoking is risky.  Our business is not about persuading people to smoke; it is
about offering quality brands to adults who have already taken the decision to
smoke.  We strongly believe that smoking should only be for adults who are
aware of the risks.
In a nutshell, our view on smoking is
this:British American Tobacco companies produce
fine quality products that provide pleasure to many millions of adult smokers
around the world.  Along with the pleasures of cigarette smoking come real
risks of serious diseases.  We also recognise that, for many people, smoking
is difficult to quit. Smoking is a cause of various serious and fatal diseases such as
lung cancer, respiratory disease and heart disease.  The risks associated with
smoking are primarily defined by epidemiological (population statistical)
studies that show that groups of lifetime smokers have far higher incidence of
certain diseases than comparable groups of non-smokers.  These risks tend to
be greater in groups that start smoking younger, smoke for longer, and smoke
more cigarettes per day.  The statistics, however, do not tell us whether a
particular individual smoker will avoid an associated disease by smoking less.
and all smoking behaviours are associated with significantly increased health
risks. Studies
also show that the only way to avoid smoking-related risks is not to smoke in
the first place, and the best way to reduce the risks is to
quit. There is
more about the health risks in Health risks of
smoking.  Click on the drop-down navigation
Can people quit
Smoking can be hard
to quit.  However, we believe it is important that smokers who decide to quit
realise they can, provided they have the motivation to quit and the belief that
they can.   Many smokers are said to be
dependent on cigarettes because they know the real risks of disease involved
but still smoke frequently and find it very difficult to quit.  It has been known for centuries
that smoking is difficult to quit.  Under international definitions for
determining whether people are dependent on smoking, including those from the
World Health Organisation, many smokers would be classified as being
dependent. However, millions of smokers have quit without any medical help,
and millions have modified how often, where and when they smoke in the light of
differing social norms.  In some countries, such as the UK, there are now as
many ex-smokers as smokers.  While smoking is commonly understood to be addictive, we believe
it is important that smokers who decide to quit realise they can, provided they
have the motivation to quit and the belief that they can.  We believe that if
you want to quit, you should. Various ways have been suggested to help people quit, including
using ‘nicotine
replacement therapy’
(patches and gums).   While all these forms of assistance may be beneficial,
the most important factors in successfully quitting are having the motivation
to quit and the self-belief that you can do so.   
Health risks of
Along with the
pleasures of smoking there are real risks of serious diseases such as lung
cancer, respiratory disease and heart disease, and for many people, smoking is
difficult to quit. Smoking is a cause of various serious and fatal diseases,
including lung cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and heart diseases. 
 StudiesThe health risks of smoking
are derived from epidemiology.  Epidemiology is a statistically based science,
dealing with risks among large groups of people, rather than with
individuals.  Through questionnaires and observations of people,
epidemiological studies can identify the incidence of disease in a given group,
such as smokers, and compare it with the incidence in another group, such as
non-smokers. Over
many years, epidemiological studies have consistently reported a much higher
incidence of certain diseases among smokers compared with non-smokers.  The
studies also report that the risks are reduced after quitting and that quitting
earlier has by far the best effect on reducing risks.   Traditionally, epidemiology has
been used to identify associations that point to possible causes of a disease,
providing direction for thorough laboratory investigations.  With smoking, the
many laboratory investigations over the years have proved more problematic, and
science has not to date been able to identify biological mechanisms which can
explain with certainty the statistical findings linking smoking and certain
diseases, nor has science been able to clarify the role of particular smoke
constituents in these disease processes. This means that science is still
to determine which smokers will get a smoking related disease and which will
not.  Nor can science tell whether any individual became ill solely because
they smoked.  This is, in part, because all the diseases that have been
associated with smoking also occur in life-long non-smokers. We do not point out these
scientific limitations to cast doubt that smoking is a cause of serious
disease.  An important point is that the lack of complete understanding about
the biological aspects of the disease mechanisms, and the role of particular
smoke constituents, creates uncertainty for efforts to design less harmful
cigarettes.  Our own work for many years has included, and still includes,
research into less harmful cigarettes.  We remain committed to this work,
although the scientific uncertainties make it a major challenge.
 Environmental tobacco smoke
The World Health
Organisation and various other public health bodies have reported that exposure
to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), sometimes called 'passive smoking', is a
cause of various diseases.  The risks they report are far lower than those
associated with active smoking, but are said to be large enough to make public
smoking an important public health issue. Our view of the science is that
ETS exposure is associated with various short term health impacts, such as
exacerbating symptoms in asthmatics and respiratory illnesses in children. 
The science on ETS and chronic diseases, such as lung cancer and heart disease,
is in our view not definitive and at most suggests that if there is a risk from
ETS exposure, it is too small to measure with any certainty. So while we understand and support
measures to reduce involuntary exposure to ETS, we do not believe that blanket
bans on public and workplace smoking are fair or necessary, as there are more
practical solutions based on air quality standards.What is ETS?Technically, it is an 'aged', diluted mixture of sidestream smoke
(from smouldering cigarettes) and exhaled mainstream smoke (from smokers
puffing). Major
studiesLung cancer: 
Most studies looking at whether ETS increases the risk of lung cancer have
compared non-smoking women married to smokers with non-smoking women married to
non-smokers.  The majority of such studies have reported small increases in
risk, though most have not been statistically significant.  One of the largest
studies on ETS and lung cancer, undertaken by the World Health Organisation
(WHO), found small increases in lung cancer risk that were typically not
statistically significant for growing up, living, working, travelling or
socialising with a smoker. Heart disease:  The most substantial
sources of data on ETS and heart disease are two huge databases of the American
Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study, and the database of the US National
Mortality Followback Survey.  Although other studies have reported small
increases in risk, analyses of the major US research databases have reported no
overall association between ETS and heart disease.Respiratory disease:  Epidemiological studies on ETS and respiratory disease in
adults, taken overall, do not show an increase in risk.  Clinical studies with
adults suffering, for example, from asthma have had difficulty in prompting a
measurable response, though clearly some asthmatics do have adverse reactions
to smoky environments. Quite a large number of studies report a statistically significant
increase in respiratory symptoms in pre-school children exposed to ETS at
home.  Other studies have suggested a relationship between parental smoking
and sudden infant death syndrome.  Whether or not passive smoking plays a
causal role in this, we believe it makes sense not to smoke around infants and
young children.  We also believe smokers should be considerate towards people
who suffer from respiratory problems such as asthma, and who may regard
themselves as particularly sensitive to ETS. There is more about associations
between actual smoking and diseases mentioned here in The primary health issues. There is more about the practical solutions that we believe show
the way forward in Regulation: Public place smoking
About smokeless snus
and health
We are trialling smokeless
Swedish-style snus in two test markets in South Africa and Sweden because some
research has indicated that it is much less harmful than cigarettes.  The move
is in line with our continuing efforts in harm reduction and a response to
those public health stakeholders who told us they believe that snus, properly
regulated, can contribute to reducing the health impact of tobacco
use. What is
snus?Snus is not smoked.  It is finely-ground
moist tobacco that comes either loose or in tiny sachets...

Curs valutar
Dolarul american4,2615
Lira Sterlina5,3015
Gramul de aur170,1555
Leul moldovenesc0,2176
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