| Referate | Director web | Adauga link | Contact |

Titlu referat: Abortion situation in Romania

Nivel referat: liceu

Descriere referat:
  Claudiu Bota
Sociology 200
Nov-15-2004
I wrote this paper instead of reading the
book: “Rampage: The Social Roots of School Shootings” by Katherine
Newman.
Counseling women with
unwanted pregnancy
Abortion situation in
Romania and its effects
Abortion is defined as termination of a
pregnancy before birth, resulting in the death of the fetus.  Abortion has
become one of the most widely debated ethical issues of our time.  On one
side are the pro-choice supporters, individuals who favor a woman’s right to choose to have an
abortion. On the other side are the pro-life advocates, who may oppose
abortion, or accept it in extreme circumstances, as when the mother’s life would be threatened by
carrying a pregnancy to term, or if in some cases if caused by rape, sex
without a woman’s
consent. Abortion can be one of the most difficult and most important decisions
a woman may have to make, if pregnant. Aborting a fetus is basically
terminating a human life in its beginning stages.  Some may even consider
this on the same level as murder. To agree with abortion is to agree with
killing an innocent creature that didn’t ask to be created. Human life is any living entity that has DNA
from the species homosapiens.  This includes an ovum, spermatozoon,
zygote, embryo, fetus, newborn.  It also includes an infant, child, adult
and elder. Some forms of human life have little or no value, others are the
most valuable and precious form of life in the known universe.  A growing
child inside a woman’s
womb is also human life. There are different types of abortion methods. 
Abortions that occur naturally are known as miscarriages, the rest are induced,
that is, intentionally brought on, which can be performed using drugs or
surgery.
In 54 countries, 61% of the world population,
abortions are legal. In 97 countries, 39% of the world population, abortions
are illegal. There are approximately 46 million abortions conducted each year
that means 126,000 abortions conducted each day.  In the United States
there are 1,370,000 abortions that occur naturally according to the Alan
Guttmacher Institute; 47% of these abortions are performed on women who have
already had one or more abortions.
In Romania after abortion liberalization in
1989, total fertility rate rapidly decreased under the replacement level at 1.6
births/woman between 1990-1993, while the rate of abortion upon request doubled
to 3.4 abortions/woman. The
number of abortion has currently decreased as result of information and
education campaigns and a wider access to contraception methods. The latest
study on Reproduction Health in 1996-1999 still show a very low fertility rate
of 1.3 births/woman and a rate of abortion upon request of 2.2 abortions /
woman. Counseling for young people and families is still needed on family
planning and using other contraception methods in order to avoid
abortion.  
Romania has the highest abortion rate in
Europe, with about 75% of all pregnancies ending in abortion. It is currently
stated that the main cause for such a dramatic abortion rate is the bad
economic situation of the country, which renders women unable to raise a child.
However, because of its meaning and the many side effects it produces, abortion
cannot be a proper solution for the women who pass through an unwanted
pregnancy crisis. Abortion produces deep wounds in the woman’s soul and attacks her fundamental
role, that of being mother and bringing new human life into our world. The
women, who have abortions, suffer psychical and behavioral effects such as
anxiety, breaking of relations with the partner and her family, feelings of
guilt and irrecoverable loss, depression, panic, sleep disturbances, suicidal
attempts, psychosis, etc. Physical effects are also important: sterility,
genital wounds, menstrual disturbances, bleeding, complications in further
pregnancies, breast cancer, etc. From the social point of view the result of
the huge abortion rate is a dramatic decrease of birth rate and, implicitly,
the aging of population and its decrease, which is a serious reason for
concern, even for the state authorities.
The association’s general goal is to contribute by
all our efforts to decrease the abortion rate in Romania. The religious believe
that God is the Creator of life and that all human life, born and unborn, is
created in His image. The associations with religious status exists to promote
the sanctity of life by providing support to the woman who finds herself in a
crisis pregnancy, in the hope that she will carry her baby to term. The
pregnant woman has to be properly informed about the new life that is
developing in her womb, about fetal development and the complications that can
occur from performing an abortion. The woman has the right to be informed.
A crisis pregnancy has far reaching
consequences for the mother, the child, the family, and the community.
Therefore, the associations are committed to the ongoing development of the
services to promote sexual abstinence outside of marriage, to educate our
community on sexuality, crisis pregnancy, abortion, and abortion alternatives,
and to provide a nurturing environment for women and their families to deal
with the effects of a crisis pregnancy or the long-term effects of a previous
abortion.
The most important part of associations
activity work with pregnant women and girls is to reach out to each with
compassion, love and acceptance. They offer loving, personal and confidential
help to the pregnant mother, whether she is single or married, regardless of
her race, age, financial status or religion. In the last years, a lot of Crisis
Pregnancy Centers were opened inside the hospitals. Women are going there for
counseling in order to decide to have or not to have an abortion performed.
Most of them choose abortion because of despair, so that words are rarely
enough to persuade a woman to continue the pregnancy. Practical care is the
most efficient way to help them decide, whether it is medical, financial or
consisting in covering immediate needs: a home, clothes, medicines, etc… They
use the following things for counseling: diagrams and plastic models of fetal
development, brochures and books, as well as video films on fetal development
and abortion. Inside these centers they: provide free pregnancy tests, offer
counseling and alternatives to abortion, counsel as needed with parents,
boyfriend, or husband, introduce women to a Gynecologist for good medical care,
offer childbirth and breast-feeding classes which the father can also attend.
They offer post-abortion counseling through individual or group therapy classes
led by professionals. They also educate young students in high schools and
campuses on a number of topics such as: sexuality, fetal development,
pregnancy, abortion and post-abortion syndrome, sexual transmitted diseases.
Furthermore, they offer house and lodging to those women who desperately need
it; offer practical help consisting of baby clothes, medicines, powdered milk
and money. They strive to create awareness within the local community of the
needs of pregnant women and of the fact that abortion only compounds human need
rather than resolving it. All services are provided
free of charge. 
All these women came to the hospital
determined to have an abortion performed, but changed their mind after talking
to the specialists and getting to know what an abortion really implies. Some
had already paid the bill for the abortion. Because of these services, women
who were searching for help to get through the situation easier are given more
options then they were aware of. There are a lot of children who would
literally not have existed in our world. It is true that their mothers face
more earthly difficulties (which the associations do their best to alleviate)
but the babies brought them also a new sense of fulfillment and joy that only
parents can understand. As a result, none regrets her decision to keep the baby.
       
Bibliography:
"The National Plan for Poverty Alleviation
and Promotion of Social Inclusion", is published (GD no. 829/2002 of
31.07.2002 )
"Romania Sociala ed. de Asociatia Romana de
Sociologie, Institutul Social Roman si Asociatia pentru Promovarea Asistentei
Sociale", nr. 3/2003, nr.4/2004
Revista de Asistenta Sociala, nr. 2/2002,
6/2002



Curs valutar
Euro4,5511
Dolarul american4,2615
Lira Sterlina5,3015
Gramul de aur170,1555
Leul moldovenesc0,2176
Materii referate

Anatomie (61)

Astronomie (61)

Biologie (546)

Chimie (530)

Contabilitate (87)

Design (4)

Diverse (878)

Drept (356)

Ecologie (59)

Economie (520)

Educatie Fizica (2)

Educatie si Invatanmant (2)

Engleza (463)

Filosofie (99)

Fizica (343)

Franceza (25)

Geografie (838)

Germana (40)

Informatica (354)

Istorie (1169)

Italiana (21)

Latina (26)

Literatura (22)

Logica (6)

Management (133)

Marketing (118)

Matematica (114)

Mecanica (13)

Medicina si Farmacie (229)

Muzica (35)

Psihologie (337)

Religie (248)

Romana (2303)

Spaniola (31)

Statistica (17)

Stiinte politice (27)

Turism (64)

Nota explicativa

Informatiile oferite de acuz.net au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica. Va recomandam utilizarea acestora doar ca sursa de inspiratie sau ca resurse educationale.