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Titlu referat: A history of the celebration of Christmas

Nivel referat: liceu

Descriere referat:
A History Of The Celebration Of
Christmas
Origins And Early Traditions
Christmas wasn't celebrated by the early
church until the fourth century. In the fourth century, the church decided to
try to redeem a Roman pagan winter solstice festival: the festival of
Saturnalia. This December holiday was considered the "birthday of the
unconquered sun." Romans danced in the streets with gifts under their arms and
greenery atop their heads.
Based on Biblical evidence Jesus of Nazareth
was probably born in the fall near the Jewish feast of Tabernacles or in the spring around the
time of Passover. Sometime before 336 the Church in Rome, unable to stamp out
the pagan festival of Saturnalia, spiritualized it as the "Feast of the
Nativity of the Sun of Righteousness." December 25th was chosen for the
celebration of his birth by Pope Julius I. The practice was adopted by the
Christian church in Antioch around 374. By 380 it was being observed in
Constantinople, and by 430 in Alexandria.  
     
Germanic tribes of Northern Europe also
celebrated mid-winter with feasting, drinking, religious rituals and the
lighting of the yule log. During the Middle Ages, Catholic priests sought
connections between biblical teachings and pagan traditions - believing that a
convergence of customs would lead more individuals to Christianity. The
celebration of Jesus' birth was melded into other age-old practices and became
known as the "Christ mass." Firelight represented the light of Christ. Gift
giving was linked to the presents of the wise men. Trees were decorated with
apples associated with the biblical Garden of Eden.
The Christmas Tree
The tradition of decorating trees occurs
among many different people. The Celts for example decorated trees with apples
and nuts during the winter solstice (around December 21), encouraging the sun
to return to bring spring. Other European people had tree decorating
rituals.
In the 7th century a monk from Crediton,
Devonshire, went to Germany to teach the Word of God. He did many good works
there, and spent much time in Thuringia, an area which was to become the cradle
of the Christmas Decoration Industry. Legend has it that he used the triangular
shape of the Fir Tree to describe the Holy Trinity of God the Father, Son and
Holy Spirit.
The converted people began to revere the Fir
tree as God's Tree, as they had previously revered the Oak. By the 12th century
it was being hung, upside-down, from ceilings at Christmastime in Central
Europe, as a symbol of Christianity.The first record of the Christmas tree (as
we know it) dates back to Riga in Latvia, in 1510. In the last quarter of the
16th century, Martin Luther is said to have decorated a small Christmas Tree
with candles, to show his children how the stars twinkled through the dark
night. Decorated trees became very popular during the German Yuletide. In 1841,
Queen Victoria of England married Prince Albert of Germany. Albert brought the
Christmas tree custom to England and hence, to the English speaking world. Many
citizens were eager to embrace the traditions of the English
royalty.
Santa Claus
The ancient inhabitants of northern Europe
believed a powerful pagan god, cloaked in red fur, galloped across the winter
sky. These myths combined with the legends of the real life figure of Bishop
Nicholas. Dutch children would put shoes by the fireplace for St. Nicholas or
"Sinter Klaas" and leave food out for his horse. He'd gallop on his horse
between the rooftops and drop candy down the chimneys into the children's
shoes. Meanwhile, his assistant, Black Peter, was the one who popped down the
chimneys to leave gifts behind.
Dutch settlers brought the legend of Sinter
Klaas to North America -- where we came to know him as Santa Claus. Washington
Irving's Knickerbocker History (1809) described Santa Claus as a stern, ascetic personage
traditionally clothed in dark robes. It was a character we would scarcely
recognize as the Santa Claus we know today, apart from his annual mission of
delivering gifts to children on Christmas Eve.
The next mention of Santa Claus is found in a
Christmas poem published in 1821 called "The Children's Friend." This poem for
young people, harkened from the same tradition but also added some new elements
to the "Santeclaus" myth.
The next year (1822), protestant minister
Clement Clarke Moore, wrote his poem "The Night Before Christmas." Moore wrote
the poem for his six children. Moore, stodgy creature of academe that he was,
refused to have the poem published despite its enthusiastic reception by
everyone who read it. Evidently his argument that it was beneath his dignity
fell on deaf ears, because the following Christmas "A Visit from St. Nicholas"
found its way into the mass media after all when a family member cunningly
submitted it to an out-of-town newspaper. The poem was an "overnight
sensation," as we would say today, but Moore was not to acknowledge authorship
of it until fifteen years later, when he reluctantly included it in a volume of
collected works. He called the poem "a mere trifle." An artist named Thomas
Nast drew the first picture of Santa Claus (shown here) for Harper's Weekly.
Santa Claus gained much of his popularity
after World War II when the economy and the baby boomers blossomed. Children
born between 1945 and 1965 greeted this gift-giving Santa with open arms that
have refused to let go, even in adulthood.
If you are a Christian, you have probably
heard the arguments about the pagan origins of many of Christmas' symbols. Many
of the symbols we have in our holidays have been adopted from different
cultures and some have pagan origins.
So is Christmas a pagan winter celebration or
a religious celebration honoring the birth of Christ? What's a Christian to do?
Discern bad elements from neutral or good ones. Make decisions that glorify and
honor God and cause no harm to their personal walk with Christ. God loved us so
much that He sent His only Son to earth. This Son was entirely God and entirely
man. Whereas we have succumbed to the temptations of this earth, Jesus was able
to overcome all temptations and live a sinless life. He was then crucified as
the perfect sacrifice for our sins and resurrected. That's something to
celebrate!
       
             
                   
           
                   
     



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